How Much Protein Should You Eat on Keto? (And What About Gluconeogenesis?)
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How Much Protein Should You Eat on Keto? (And What About Gluconeogenesis?)

How Much Protein Should You Eat on Keto? (And What About Gluconeogenesis?)

Posted a year ago

Luke Jones

Luke Jones

Tony O’Neill, PT, DPT, MSc, RDN

Tony O’Neill, PT, DPT, MSc, RDN

Scientific Reviewer

Expert Approved

How much protein you should eat on Keto for optimum results is widely contested...

Some believe that too much protein may be detrimental and could throw you out of Ketosis.

Others argue that too little can hamper recovery, decrease lean muscle mass, and make it harder to lose weight.

In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into all things protein and Keto to help clear up any confusion.

Why is Protein Important?

Protein is an essential micronutrient, needed for a whole host of important bodily processes. These include: 

  1. Creation of key enzymes and hormones [*]
  2. Muscle growth and repair [*]
  3. Supporting healthy bones and joints [*]
  4. Promoting healthy skin, hair, and nails [*][*][*]
  5. Maintaining pH of blood and bodily fluids [*]
  6. Supporting immune function [*]

People who don't get enough protein may run into various issues that are less than ideal: [*][*][*]

  • Thyroid issues
  • Decreased muscle mass
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Fatty liver
  • Increased cortisol
  • Struggles with weight

Can I Eat Too Much Protein on a Keto Diet?

A widespread fear surrounding Keto is that consuming too much protein may lead to the upregulation of a process called gluconeogenesis (GNG) and throw you out of Ketosis, undoing all your hard work.

The truth is, GNC is essential for our overall health, and actually allows us to remain in Ketosis. 

GNG may sound complicated, but it’s simply the metabolic process whereby your liver and kidneys make glucose from non-carb sources such as amino acids (the building blocks of protein). It’s completely natural and happens in Ketosis regardless of your protein intake. In fact, studies suggest that extra protein availability does not lead to an increase in GNG production [*].

Although we restrict dietary carbohydrate and glucose intake on a Keto diet, the truth is that the body still requires small amounts of glucose to support important bodily processes, including:

  • Fueling tissues that can’t run on ketones [*,*]
  • Preventing hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) [*]
  • Converting lactate to replenish glycogen stores in active individuals [*]

GNG allows the above to continue on while the rest of your body is fueled up on clean-burning Ketones. 

Bottom line: Your body needs some glucose to survive, but it doesn’t need to come from a high carbohydrate diet. Instead, maintaining adequate protein intake on Keto will give your body just enough glucose to fuel your body while still benefiting from running off ketones (fats) for everything else. 

How Much Protein Should I Eat On a Ketogenic Diet?

As we touched on earlier, the side effects of consuming too little protein can be serious, so it’s important to ensure you're getting enough.

The macros of a typical Keto diet can be broken down as follows:

  • Protein: 20-25%
  • Fat: 65-80%
  • Carbs: 3-10%

To get your personalized numbers, we recommend calculating your protein as a first priority. From there, keep carbs at a minimum and fill the rest with healthy fat sources. 

If you don't feel like doing a bunch of math, there’s good news:

In the Carb Manager app, we have a handy calculator that determines your personal macro breakdown and how many grams of each to consume per day for your goals. 

Just plug in your metrics and activity levels, and we do the rest!

Want to geek out and get more accurate results? 

To dig deeper and find your personal protein sweet spot on Keto, you can test your limits using a ketone meter. 

To do this, start by reducing your carb count to below 20 g/d for 7-10 days, aiming to enter fairly deep ketosis. Then measure your ketone levels:

  • If you're already in ketosis (ketones are below 0.5 mmol/L), gradually up your protein intake until it knocks you out of ketosis. That number is your upper limit for Keto, so look to eat slightly less than that moving forward.
  • If you're not in a Ketogenic state after the 7-10 days (ketones are above 0.5 mmol/L) then gradually reduce your protein intake to find your sweet spot. 

Who Requires a Higher Protein Intake?

The ideal protein consumption on Keto can vary from person to person and depends on a number of factors. Those who may require a higher protein intake include:

1) People looking to maintain muscles mass while losing weight 

If you're aiming to lose weight healthily, ideally you want to reduce your body fat percentage while preserving as much lean muscle mass as possible. 

Protein intake could play an important role here, as research suggest that diets containing 18%-25% protein can result in greater muscle maintenance when compared to lower protein diets (at 10–12% protein) [*].

Another study demonstrated that a moderate to high protein intake at 1.2 g/kg of body weight was shown to prevent muscle loss over a 4-week period when combined with calorie-restriction and resistance training [*]. 

Interestingly, research also demonstrated that people who consumed 2.4 g/kg protein per day (3-times the RDA) again combined with resistance training and a calorie-restricted diet, saw an INCREASE in muscle mass over a 4-week period [*].

2) Anyone at risk of slow wound healing

Protein is an essential component in proper wound healing, and experts estimate that consuming 1-3 g protein per kg of body weight is ideal to support the process [*]. 

This is worth noting for anyone recovering from surgery, healing from post-traumatic wounds, or managing diabetic ulcers. 

3) Older adults looking to remain active and healthy

As we enter our golden years, maintaining muscle mass becomes increasingly important. After all, we know that sarcopenia (the loss of muscle with age) is associated with a significantly higher risk of falls and fractures [*]. 

The good news? Research suggests that higher protein intakes for the elderly (more than 20% of calories from protein) can help maintain muscle mass and physical function [*].

4) Type 2 diabetics and those with cardiovascular risk factors

A 2006 study demonstrated that a high-protein diet (30% of calories from protein) was effective in improving glucose control and insulin sensitivity in men with type 2 diabetes [*]. 

Similar recommendations have been made for those looking to maintain a healthy heart. A 2017 study demonstrated that in children aged between 2-18 years, a diet containing ~20% of calories from protein provided a greater decrease in cardiovascular risk factors (such as blood pressure and cholesterol) compared to 16% protein. Higher protein intakes were also associated with beneficial cardiovascular outcomes in adults [*]. 

Bottom line: Use 1.6 g protein per kg of body weight (or 20-30% of calories from protein) as a rule of thumb, but know that you may need to be flexible and adjust your protein intake slightly based on your individual needs. 

Do I Need More Protein if I Train Really Hard?

While protein intake is important to fuel muscle growth and repair, research suggests that you don't need to go crazy.

A study in the ’80s followed elite bodybuilders who trained 90 mins a day, 6 days a week. When it came to benefiting body composition, the upper limit of protein intake was 0.75 g/lb (1.65 g/kg) [*]. In fact, it’s well documented that more advanced trainees may require less protein than novice athletes [*]. 

It’s important to note that this figure of 1.65 g/kg would be the upper limit for muscle gains if you are in a caloric balance (not aiming for weight loss).

However, as we touched on earlier, if you’re consuming a caloric deficit and looking to lose weight, you may benefit from a higher protein intake to help preserve or build lean muscle mass - upwards of 2.4 to 3 g/kg per day [*].  

What About Resistance Training and the Keto Diet?

A more recent paper looked at the efficacy of ketogenic diet on body composition during resistance training in trained men. 

Researchers found that over an eight-week period, participants were able to lose body fat with no loss of muscle mass. This was achieved while consuming a Keto diet at a calorie surplus and ingesting 2 g protein per kg of body weight [*].

Based on this and previous studies, anywhere between 1.6-3 g/kg would likely be sufficient for the most active individuals amongst you.

Great Keto-Friendly Protein Sources

We’ve established that getting enough protein is important on Keto, but not all sources are created equally. 

The overconsumption of processed meats, for example, has been linked with a whole host of health issues, including a potential increase in the risk of heart disease and all-cause mortality [*

Keto Protein Sources to Limit or Avoid:

  • Salami
  • Deli meats
  • Sausages
  • Overly processed bacon
  • Corned beef
  • Hot dogs
  • Lunchmeat
  • Jerky
  • Fast food

Healthier, Keto-friendly Protein Sources:

  • Grass-fed meats
  • Free-range poultry
  • Wild-caught fish
  • Game
  • Organ meats
  • Full-fat dairy - if tolerated
  • Bone broth
  • Eggs
  • Nuts
  • Seeds

If you struggle to hit your protein intake through whole foods alone, you could also consider supplementing with collagen or whey protein if tolerated.

Protein on Keto: The Bottom Line

  • Protein is super important for a whole host of bodily processes beyond muscle growth and repair.
  • Eating too much protein on Keto is largely a myth - gluconeogenesis leads to a small increase in glucose production, but we need that to survive.
  • If you are generally active and not in a calorie deficit, you may want to shoot for 1.6 g/kg body weight per day, and prioritize protein on Keto with healthy sources.
  • If you are aiming for weight loss and you currently consume a caloric deficit, a higher protein intake of 2.4 to 3 g/kg per day may be beneficial. 
  • Leaner individuals with resistance training experience should shoot for the higher end of this range (closer to 3), while people with less exercise experience and a higher body fat percentage should aim for closer to lower end (closer to 2.4) [*].

Comments 6

  • Ashira712

    Ashira712 2 months ago

    I hate that everyone uses gram & kg… I’m from the US… we use oz, cups & pounds … it’s hard for me to understand what those are.. lol. I wish people would use both measurements so perhaps learning would be easier… it is annoying to constantly have to try to convert the measurements.

    • FantasticAvocado633405

      FantasticAvocado633405 5 months ago

      A portion of this article seems inaccurate. In it, you say to knock yourself out of ketosis if you are at 0.5 mmol/L of ketones or below to find your upper limit of protein intake to stay in ketosis, but at <=0.5 mmol/L you are already not in ketosis. Then, below that you say that ketone levels above 0.5 mmol/L is not in a ketogenic state which is not correct. Optimal ketogenic ranges are from 1-3 mmol/L. Might want to correct that, as it could lead readers astray.

      • ErikGreyBeard

        ErikGreyBeard 4 months ago

        You are right, the article is incorrect and confusing on that point in the "Geek Out" section. Had to go look up Ketones and Ketosis elsewhere again to be sure. You cannot "be in Ketosis below 0.5 mmol/L", nor be "knocked out of Ketosis when you get above 0.5 mmol/L". Totally backward.

    • FavorableRadish781067

      FavorableRadish781067 6 months ago

      I have kidney disease and read that I should only have 15% protein.

      • GloriousDawn

        GloriousDawn 3 months ago

        This information assumes the reader is healthy. If you have kidney disease, your doctor’s recommendations count for more than anything you might read online.

    • Sarah

      Sarah 8 months ago

      Please note that, as Dr. red Naiman points out in interviews, RDA recommendations specify only the absolute minimum (in this case of protein) needed for good health. Since the study you cite in this article shows that increased amounts of protein have do not cause a rise in the naturally occurring GNG rate, I wonder why we keep on insisting that protein should be under 30% when studies also show that higher protein intake invariably results in greater fat loss? Perhaps, in light of such evidence, it's time to re-evaluate the keto doctrine on macro ratios?